Over the years, however, due to the lack of convention in some style guides, it has been difficult to determine which two-word abbreviations should and should not be abbreviated with periods. This question will be discussed below, East Asian languages whose writing systems use Chinese characters form abbreviations in the same way using key Chinese characters of a term or phrase. For example, in Japanese, the term for the United Nations, kokusai rengō (国際連合) is often abbreviated to kokuren (国連). (These abbreviations are called ryakugo (略語) in Japanese; see also Japanese abbreviated and contracted words.) The syllable abbreviation is often used for universities: for example, Tōdai (東大) for Tōkyō daigaku (東京大学, University of Tokyo) and is used in the same way in Chinese: Běidà (北大) for Běijīng Dàxué (北京大学, Peking University). The English expression “Gung ho” is originally a Chinese abbreviation. If the full form of the acronym is capitalized, the acronym usually also uses capital letters (National Aeronautics and Space Administration → NASA). Some acronyms can be written with the first capital letter and the rest with lowercase letters (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome → AIDS). Many acronyms have evolved into full-fledged words and can be written entirely in lowercase (subscriber identification module [card] → SIM card). If the full form begins with a capital letter, the shortening must begin with an uppercase letter (Monday → Monday, approximately → approximately). In the rendering, the introductory use of “abs” indicates the surface shape of the referenced term, while later uses indicate the acronym, as shown here. “Generally, spell out the names of government offices and agencies, well-known organizations, companies, etc. at the first mention.
In later references, use the shortest possible forms, such as agency or company, as a handful of initials allow for speckled typography and choppy prose. Now that you know how abbreviations are formed, you may be wondering how they are pronounced. Most of the time, they are pronounced the same way as the original word, whether you read it aloud or in your head. However, subject to a requirement of style or consistency of the house, the same plurals may be rendered less formally than: Acronyms are read differently from abbreviations. Take the word BLT. If you`ve seen this on the menu of your favorite restaurant, chances are you`re just ordering a BLT, not a bacon, salad, and tomato sandwich. Nor would they build it or pronounce belts; You would say B-L-T. That`s what makes acronyms unique – you can read them as they appear, even if they represent something else. An abbreviation (from the Latin brevis, meaning short) is an abbreviated form of a word or phrase. It can be a group of letters or words from the full version of the word or phrase; For example, the word abbreviation itself can be replaced by the abbreviation, abbrv. or Abbreviation.
be posted; NPO, for zero (or nothing) per (by) bone (mouth) is an abbreviated medical instruction. It can also be only initials, a mixture of initials and words, or words or letters that represent words in another language (e.g. or RSVP). Some types of abbreviations are acronyms (some pronounceable, others acronyms) or grammatical contractions or crasis. Some people put a period at the end (govt., Revd.), but strictly speaking there is no need because the last letter of contraction is the same as the last letter of the complete form (govt, Revd). What about chat terms like LOL (laughing out loud), BRB (being back) and please (please)? Many blur the line between abbreviations and acronyms, but they are abbreviations nonetheless. In other words, they abbreviate something in a contemporary way using initials, slang, and other abbreviations. They allow for quick communication, making them a form of shortcut. Abbreviations are usually formed with the best-known letters of the word or phrase. This makes them easier to remember and easier for others to read. It`s almost as if the letters are clues that point to the original word or phrase. The short form of an expression, usually followed by a period.
Dr. is the standard abbreviation for Doctor; MA is the standard abbreviation for Massachusetts. So what does “on-demand” mean? Should not all abbreviations and acronyms be defined? A syllable abbreviation is usually formed from the initial syllables of several words, such as Interpol = International + Police. It is a variant of the acronym. Syllable abbreviations are usually written in lower case, sometimes beginning with an uppercase letter, and are always pronounced like words rather than letter by letter. Syllable abbreviations should be distinguished from portmanteaus, which combine two words without necessarily taking whole syllables from each. For example, if an element with the attribute keyref=”abs” provides the first occurrence of the term ABS in a book, the sentence could be rendered as follows: Abbreviations that save space when written are usually (but not always) pronounced as the full form (hence we usually say “continued” rather than “continuous”). Miscellaneous is a very common substitute for miscellaneous – even in formal writing – simply because the original word is so long. A good rule for abbreviations is to put the reader first. Ask yourself: will the abbreviation make the sentence easier to read or will it leave the reader confused (for example, if the abbreviation is too vague)? If an abbreviation still sounds like a good idea, then consider the context.
Abbreviations are perfectly good in personal and casual writing – they are often good in formal writing too. You may want to ask your boss or teacher if you`re not sure. For example, it is wrong to write “the 1960s” referring to that entire decade; Instead, we should write “the 1960s.” The same rule applies to the plural form of any other type of number, such as the description of an individual`s age (e.g., “80-year-old clients”), and is explained in more detail in section 4.38 on page 114 of the Publications Manual. Almost, but there are a handful of exceptions. These exceptions are words for which abbreviated forms have become commonplace. These abbreviations are often better known than their written equivalents. IQ, for example, is better known than IQ. Similarly, your readers are more likely to recognize REM sleep than sleep with rapid eye movements. Note that some abbreviations (the last five here, for example) are entered into the language as words or informal words, meaning some people may not know they are abbreviations for something longer.
Also note that such shortening can sometimes result in a slight change in spelling (bike, rubber boots). For more information, check out our other articles on APA-style punctuation. Punctuation is also discussed in more detail on pages 87 and 96 of the Publication Manual. And of course, feel free to comment on this article or contact us with your style questions. Note that there are three important elements for rendering the clip. Abbreviations have a long history, created in such a way that the spelling of an entire word could be avoided. This can be done to save time and space and also to ensure secrecy. In Greece and Rome, the reduction of words to individual letters was common.  In Roman inscriptions, “words were usually abbreviated using the initial letter(s) of the words, and most inscriptions have at least one abbreviation.” However, some may have more than one meaning, depending on their context. (For example, ⟨A⟩ can be an abbreviation for many words, such as ager, amicus, annus, as, Aulus, Aurelius, aurum, and avus.)  An abbreviation is an abbreviated form of a written word or phrase.
Abbreviations can be used to save space and time, to avoid the repetition of long words and phrases, or simply to suit conventional usage. You may have noticed that the abbreviations for ounce (oz) and pound (lb) are a little different from the rest. They are written with letters that are not part of the original word. This is because abbreviations are based on older forms of each word – once comes from the Italian word onza and pound comes from the Roman word libra. Some people don`t know if they should call as soon as possible or appet abbreviations or acronyms.